Based Insulators is a drastic step to reduce the effects caused by earthquakes . Base isolator is a kind of clash between the land and building of reducing damage during earthquakes . This technology is very common in prone areas like San Francisco and Japan .
Avoid areas with poor foundations substraits ( cf Mexico City earthquake of 1985 , where liquefied unconsolidated sands and dropped him high towers ) .
Earthquake -proof buildings with reinforced concrete foundation at the bottom , flexible seals reduce the resonance positions and movement systems , including masses to counteract the effects of the waves on land.
Avoid construction on steep slopes yound mountain ranges (eg Pakistan earthquake 2008)
Consider tsunamis and ensure that areas thatlow - lying , especially estuaries where the waves are channeled and avoid these areas as well.
Less ' glass and steel ' towers , where falling glass is a murderer important .
Building codes . Sensitive urban planning . Avoid failure scars .
Other than that it is in the lap of the gods .
New construction codes call for bracing which will continue to resist collapse of the building even after the buildin has been damaged by the earthquake. This is to allow the occupants to escape safely. If the building is of such importance that it must continue to in service after the quake, even more expensive bracing and heavier support columns can be used, at greatly increased expense. Other things to do are to connect tall furniture to the walls so that it does fall on the occupants in an earthquake; design suspended ceilings with a gap around the edge so that they can swing a little in an earthquake, rather than collapse.
Map the fault lines, and don't build anything directly over them. Important infrastructure that crosses fault lines (freeways, power lines, aqueducts, etc.) needs to be flexible enough to withstand the maximum possible fault slippage and/or easily and quickly repairable.
Map the soil and ground conditions. Restrict construction in areas susceptible to liquefaction, slides, etc.
Use earthquake-resistant construction techniques. Base isolation systems (rollers or shock absorbers) literally disconnect a building from the movement of the earth. Structural details like cross-bracing and shear walls help distribute the forces from an earthquake through a building instead of concentrating the stress at a few potential failure points. Extra attention needs to be paid to mid-rise buildings; the low-frequency surface waves from a quake can match a building's natural resonant frequency and shake it apart, even at comparatively mild shaking intensities.
Interior fixtures such as tall furniture, water heaters, etc., can be secured to the structural frame of the building to prevent overturning. Cabinets can have locking latches instead of magnets, and low railings can be added to shelves to keep items from falling to the floor.
Public awareness of what to do before, during, and after a quake is as important as anything else when it comes to minimizing earthquake damage.